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Urinalysis

Urine Color

Urine is normally pale yellow to amber. Abnormal or unusual colors include:

Color Significance
  Black
  • Alkaptonuria
  Port wine
  • Porphyrins
  • Methemoglobin
  • Hemoglobin
  • Lysol poisoning
  Red-Brown
  • Hemoglobinuria
  • Blood
  • Myoglobinuria
  • Porphyrins
  Red
  • Eating beets
  • Cascara and Senna laxatives
  • Phenazopyridine ingestion
  Orange
  • Concentrated urine
  • Small amounts of bile
  • Phenazopyridine ingestion
  • Oral anticoagulants
  • Ethoxazene
  • Chlorzoxazone
  Yellow-Brown
  • Bilirubin
  • Sulfonamides
  • Nitrofurantoin
  Yellow-Green
  • Bilirubin
  • Pseudomonas
  Green-Blue
  • Methylene blue
  • Amitriptyline
  Smoky
  • Blood

Normal Values*

Color Pale yellow to amber
Turbidity  Clear to slightly hazy
Specific Gravity 1.015 to 1.025
pH 4.5-8.0
Glucose Negative
Ketones Negative
Blood Negative
Protein Negative
Bilirubin Negative
Urobilinogen 0.1-1.0
Nitrate for bacteria Negative
Leukocyte esterase Negative
Casts Negative
Red blood cells Negative
Crystals Negative
White blood cells Negative/Rare
Epithelial cells Few

*These are general values taken from a variety of sources. The actual normal values may vary from lab to lab and from one type of testing protocol to another.

 

Source: Operational Medicine 2001,  Health Care in Military Settings, NAVMED P-5139, May 1, 2001, Bureau of Medicine and Surgery, Department of the Navy, 2300 E Street NW, Washington, D.C., 20372-5300