Page last updated April 2020

This is a FREE resource designed to support the medical profession in their care of women made possible by over 750 expert clinicians who are generously providing their contributions without any remuneration and by the publishers who have paid personally for the creation of this site in the memory of their daughter, Abigail.

Current Authors


The ESR is the speed at which non-clotted red blood cells settle to the bottom of a test tube.

Increased rates of RBC settling are caused by changes in the plasma proteins. In some diseases, the ESR can be particularly rapid (high ESR). These include:

  • Infection
  • Inflammatory diseases
  • Auto-immune diseases
  • Trauma/tissue injury
  • Many cancers

Normal Values*

Men 0-15 mm/hr
Women 0-20 mm/hr
Children 0-10 mm/hr

*These are general values taken from a variety of sources. The actual normal values may vary from lab to lab and from one type of testing protocol to another.

Source: Operational Medicine 2001,  Health Care in Military Settings, NAVMED P-5139, May 1, 2001, Bureau of Medicine and Surgery, Department of the Navy, 2300 E Street NW, Washington, D.C., 20372-5300