Page last updated April 2020

This is a FREE resource designed to support the medical profession in their care of women made possible by over 750 expert clinicians who are generously providing their contributions without any remuneration and by the publishers who have paid personally for the creation of this site in the memory of their daughter, Abigail.

Current Authors


Prolactin is a hormone, released from the pituitary gland, that stimulates milk production.

Mild elevations of prolactin can follow a breast exam, because breast stimulation provokes increased release of prolactin.

High levels of prolactin are frequently due to a pituitary tumor (microadenoma or macroadenoma) and are often associated with amenorrhea and glactorrhea.

Elevations of Prolactin may be seen in:

  • Galactorrhea
  • Amenorrhea
  • Pituitary malfunction
  • Hypothyroidism
  • Renal failure
  • Pregnancy
  • Breast-feeding
  • Stress
  • Exercise
  • Nipple stimulation
  • Drugs (estrogen, tricyclic antidepressents, antihypertensives, etc.)

Normal Values*

Men <20 ng/ml 53-360 mIU/L
Women 2-15 ng/ml 40-530 mIU/L
Pregnancy 50-400 ng/ml 1000-8000 mIU/L

*These are general values taken from a variety of sources. The actual normal values may vary from lab to lab and from one type of testing protocol to another.